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Integers literals can be expressed in several numeration bases.

*Decimal numbers* use the usual syntax `[1-9][0-9]*`

. For
example, `2345`

.

*Octal numbers* are expressed using a prefix `0o`

(or
`0O`

) followed by one or more digits in the range `[0-7]`

.
Examples are `0o0`

, `0o100`

and `0o777`

.

*Hexadecimal numbers* are expressed using a prefix `0x`

(or
`0X`

) followed by one or more hexadecimal digits in the range
`[0-f]`

. Examples are `0x0`

and `0xfe00ffff`

. Note
that both the `x`

in the prefix and the letters in the
hexadecimal number are case insensitive. Thus, `0XdeadBEEF`

is a
valid (but ugly as hell) literal.

*Binary numbers* are expressed using a prefix `0b`

(or
`0B`

) followed by one or more binary digits in the range
`[0-1]`

. Examples of binary literals are `0b0`

and
`0B010`

.

Negative numbers, of any numeration base, are constructed using the
minus operator as explained below. Therefore the minus symbol
`-`

in negative numbers is not part of the literal themselves.

`_`

The character `_`

can appear anywhere in a numeric literal
except as the first character. It is ignored, and its purpose is to
make it easier for programmers to read them:

0xf000_0000_0000_0000 0b0000_0001_0000_0001

The type of a numeric literal is the smallest signed integer capable
of holding it, starting with 32 bits, in steps of powers of two and up
to 64 bits.^{10}

So, for example, the value `2`

has type `int<32>`

, but the
value `0xffff_ffff`

has type `int<64>`

, because it is out of
the range of signed 32-bit numbers.

A set of suffixes can be used to construct integer literals of certain
types explicitly. `L`

or `l`

is for 64-bit integers.
`H`

or `h`

is for 16-bit integers (also known as
*halves*), `B`

or `b`

is for 8-bit integers (also known
as *bytes*) and `n`

or `N`

is for 4-bit integers (also
known as *nibbles*).

Thus, `10L`

is a 64-bit integer with value
`0x0000_0000_0000_000A`

, `10H`

is a 16-bit integer with
value `0x000A`

and `10b`

is a 8-bit integer with value
`0x0A`

.

Similarly, the signed or unsigned attribute of an integer can be
explicitly specified using the suffix `u`

or `U`

(the
default are signed types). For example `0xffff_ffffU`

has type
`uint<32>`

and `0ub`

has type `uint<8>`

. It is possible
to combine width-indicating suffixes with signedness suffixes:
`10UL`

denotes the same literal as `10LU`

.

The above rules guarantee that it is always possible to determine the width and signedness of an integer constant just by looking at it, with no ambiguity.

Rationale: the width of a C “int” is 32 bits in most currently used architectures, and binary data formats are usually modelled after C.

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